Assmy P., J.K. Ehn, M. Fernández-Méndez, H. Hop, C. Katlein, A. Sundfjord, K. Bluhm, M. Daase, A. Engel, A. Fransson, M.A. Granskog, S.R. Hudson, S. Kristiansen, M. Nicolaus, I. Peeken, A.H.H. Renner, G. Spreen, A. Tatarek, J. Wiktor. 2013. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting Arctic sea ice. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76599. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076599. Open access.

Collins, R. E., & Deming, J. W. (2013). An inter-order horizontal gene transfer event enables the catabolism of compatible solutes by Colwellia psychrerythraea 34HExtremophiles17(4), 601-610.

Comeau, A. M., Philippe, B., Thaler, M., Gosselin, M., Poulin, M., & Lovejoy, C. (2013). Protists in  drift and landfast sea ice. Journal of Phycology, 49(2), 229-240.

Hop H., and H. Gjøsæter. 2013. Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and capelin (Mallotus villosus) as key species in marine food webs of the Arctic and the Barents Sea. Marine Biology Research 9: 912-928

Melnikov, I.A. and N.V. Chernova. 2013. Characteristics of under-ice swarming of polar cod Boreogadus saida (Gadidae) in the Central Arctic Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology 53 (1) 7-15

Meltofte H., T. Barry, D. Berteaux, H. Bültmann, J.S. Christiansen, J.A. Cook, A. Dalhberg, F.J.A. Daniëls, D. Ehrich, J. Fjeldså, F. Friöriksson, B. Ganter, A.J. Gaston, L.J. Gillespie, L. Grenoble, E.P. Hoberg, I.D. Hodkinson, H.P. Huntington, R.A. Ims, A.B. Josefson, S.J. Kutz, S.L. Kuzmin, K.L. Laidre, D.R. Lassuy, P.N. Lewis, C. Lovejoy, C. Michel, V. Mokievsky, T. Mustonen, D.C. Payer, M. Poulin, D.G. Reid, J.R. Reist, D.F. Tessler, F.J. Wrona. 2013. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Synthesis. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri. 124 p.

Nelson, R. J., Ashjian, C. J., Bluhm, B. A., Conlan, K. E., Gradinger, R. R., et al. (2014). Biodiversity and Biogeography of the Lower Trophic Taxa of the Pacific Arctic Region: Sensitivities to Climate Change. In The Pacific Arctic Region (pp. 269-336). Springer Netherlands.

Søreide J.E., M.L. Carroll, H. Hop, W.G. Ambrose Jr., E.N. Hegseth, S. Falk-Petersen. 2013. Sympagic-pelagic-benthic coupling in Arctic and Atlantic waters around Svalbard revealed by stable isotopic and fatty acid tracers. Marine Biology Research 9: 892-911

Søgaard, D. H., Thomas, D. N., Rysgaard, S., Glud, R. N., Norman, L., Kaartokallio, H., Juul-Pedersen, T. & Geilfus, N. X. (2013). The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice. Polar Biology, 36(12), 1761-1777.


Berge J, Ø. Varpe, M.A. Moline, A. Wold, P.E. Renaud, M. Daase, S. Falk-Petersen. 2012. Retention of endemic keystone species in a future ice-free Arctic Ocean. Biology Letters doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0517. (Open access) 


Poulin M, N. Daugbjerg, R. Gradinger, L. Ilyash, T. Ratkova, C. Quillfeldt. 2011. The pan-Arctic biodiversity of marine pelagic and sea-ice unicellular eukaryotes: a first-attempt assessment. Marine Biodiversity 41: 13-28 doi 10.1007/s12526-010-0058-8

FishesPelagic and benthic fish species are important in Arctic marine ecosystems because they transfer energy to predators such as seabirds, marine mammals, and people. The Fish Expert Network is currently working on an update to the  2017 State of the Arctics Marine Biodiversity Report: Marine Fish

Check out the latest Status and Trends on Marine Fishes

Fish Network

  • Faroe Islands: To be confirmed
  • Greenland: To be confirmed
  • Russia: To be confirmed


sea ice biota aThe sea-ice related food web and biodiversity are critical components of the Arctic marine ecosystem. Higher trophic levels are directly or indirectly supported by over 2000 species of small algae and animals that are associated with sea ice, but are often inconspicuous to the naked eye.

These species inhabit a wide range of microhabitats inside the brine channel system, in melt ponds, leads, immediately underneath the ice, and including pressure ridges. The origin and age of sea ice influence the community composition of sea ice biota, with pronounced differences between annual landfast sea ice, offshore annual pack ice, and multiyear pack ice. Given the sea ice decline over at least the past few decades, shifts are expected in ice-associated biota.

The primary goals of the sea ice group in CBMP are to provide information on the biodiversity of sea ice biota and track their potential changes. We focus on four focal ecosystem components: Prokaryotic microbes; Ice algae and other protists; Sea-ice meiofauna; and Under-ice macrofauna. Given the lack of regular and systematic monitoring of sea ice biota, we rely on data compilations and meta-analysis.

Check out the latest Status and Trends on Sea Ice Biota

Sea Ice Biota Network

  • US: To be confirmed

  • Germany: Hauke FloresAlfred Wegener Institute Helmholz Center for Polar and Marine Research

 Sea ice biota publication list 

  • Ehrlich J, Schaafsma FL, Bluhm BA, Peeken I, Castellani G, Brandt A, Flores H (2020) Sympagic fauna in and under Arctic pack ice in the annual sea ice system of the new Arctic Frontiers in Marine Science 7:452. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00452   

  • Gradinger R, Bluhm BA (2020) First Arctic sea ice meiofauna food web analysis based on abundance, biomass and stable isotope ratios of sea ice metazoan fauna from near-shore Arctic fast ice. Marine Ecology Progress Series 634:29-43

  • Castellani G, Schaafsma FL, Arndt S, Lange BA, Peeken I, Ehrlich J, David C, Ricker R, Krumpen T, Hendricks S, Schwegmann S, Massictotte P, Flores H (2020) Large-Scale Variability of Physical and Biological Sea-Ice Properties in Polar Oceans. Frontiers in Marine Science7, p.536. 

  • Hop H, Vihtakari M, Bluhm B, Assmy P, Poulin M, Gradinger R, Peeken I, von Quillfeld C, Mork Olsen L, Zhitina L, Melnikov I (2020) Changes in sea/ice protist diversity with declining sea ice in the Arctic Ocean from the 1980s to 2010s. Frontiers in Marine Science 7:243.doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00243 

  • Kunisch E, Bluhm BA, Daase M, Gradinger R, Hop H, Melnikov IA, Varpe Ø, Berge J (2020) Pelagic occurrences of the ice amphipod Apherusa glacialis throughout the Arctic. Journal of Plankton Research 37, doi:10.1093/plankt/fbz072 

  • Limoges A, G Massé, K Weckström, M Poulin, M Ellegaard, M Heikkilä, N-X Geilfus, MK Sejr, S Rysgaard and S Ribeiro (2018) Spring succession and vertical export of diatoms and IP25 in a seasonally ice-covered high Arctic fjord. Frontiers in Earth Science 6:226. doi:10.3389/feart.2018.00226.   

  • Tremblay J-É, P Archambault, M Gosselin, S Bélanger, J Cullen, D Dumont, C Lovejoy, C. Nozais, M Poulin and S Rysgaard (2018) Arc3Bio (Marine biodiversity, biological productivity and biogeochemistry in the changing Canadian Arctic). In: Impacts of Environmental Change in the Canadian Coastal Arctic: A Compendium of Research Conducted During ArcticNet Phase IV (2016-17), pp. 279-303 (Edited by ArcticNet, M Lemay, A Gaden, C Barrette). ArcticNet Inc., Quebec City, Canada.   

  • Bluhm BA, Hop H, Vihtakari M, Gradinger R, Iken K, Melnikov IA, Søreide J (2018) Sea ice meiofauna: meta-analysis of distribution and abundance documents large variability on local to pan-Arctic scales and across seasons. Ecology and Evolution, DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3797 

  • Hop, H, Bluhm BA, Melnikov IA, Poulin M, Vihtakari M, Collins RE, Gradinger R, Juul-Pedersen T and von Quillfeldt C (2018) Sea ice biota: excerpts from the State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Report by the sea ice biota expert network/CBMP. Peer J, 6:e26822v1.   

  • Bluhm BA, Hop H, Melnikov IA, Poulin M, Vihtakari M, Collins RE, Gradinger R, Juul-Pedersen T, von Quillfeldt C (2017) 3.1 Sea ice biota. In: CAFF. State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Report. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland, 978-9935-431-63-9 

  • Bluhm BA, Swadling K, Gradinger R (2017) Chapter 16. Sea ice as habitat for macrograzers. In: Sea ice. DN Thomas (editor), 3rd edition   

mamammslThe Marine Mammal Expert Network is building on the work done for the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment and the key findings and advice from the State of the Arctic’s Marine Biodiversity Report (SAMBR) and providing data to the Arctic Biodiversity Data Service (ABDS) and developing an interactive map of Passive Acoustic Monitoring sites, including metadata on who owns the instruments, deployment period, recording settings: Pan-Arctic Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM).

Check out the latest Status and Trends on Marine Mammals

Marine Mammal Network

  • Faroe Islands: To be confirmed
  • IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group 

PlanktonThe Plankton Expert Network is summarizing the spatial extent of past sampling, and producing maps showing movement of copepod  species from the Pacific into the Arctic.

Plankton are taxonomically and functionally diverse aquatic organisms that range in size from submicron (1 ¼m) to centimetres (cm). Phytoplankton are responsible for all primary production in the open ocean and are the base of the pelagic food chain supporting higher trophic levels.

Arctic phytoplankton and other protists, which include single-celled micro zooplankton, are the main food for copepods that are the principal food for larger macrozooplankton, and some species of fish and seabirds. Bacterioplankton are essential for degrading organic carbon in the ecosystem, and in the open ocean, including the Arctic, Bacteria and Archaea are responsible for remineralization of nutrients. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic microbial eukaryotes graze on Bacteria and Archaea as well as smaller phytoplankton. All of these single-celled plankton are subject to strong environmental selection. 

Check out the latest Status and Trends on Plankton

Steering Group

  • Iceland: Astthor Gislason, Marine and Freshwater Institute and Guðmundur Guðmundsson, Icelandic Institute of Natural History

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